Drug abuse and addiction now both grouped as drug use disorder is a condition that is characterized by a self-destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems and distress which may include tolerance to significant problems and distress which may include tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance.
Dual diagnosis refers to the presence of both a drug issue in addition to a serious mental health condition in an individual.
Virtually any substance whose ingestion can result in a euphoric (high) feeling can be abused.
Although drug abuse disorders have no single cause, there are a number of biological, physiological and social risk factors that can predispose a person to developing a chemical use disorder.
Effect on the society:
Strain on employers and co-workers
Strain on health care system
Strain on family e.t.c
- Recurrent drug use
- Interferes with important obligations
- Results in social or relationship problems
- Tolerance e. t. c
Virtually every substance that is abused has an effect on the executive –functioning areas of the brain. Drugs particularly affect the brains ability to inhibit actions that the person would otherwise delay or prevent.
No single test can be used to give a definitive diagnosis thus healthcare professionals diagnose by gathering comprehensive medical, family and mental-health information as well as securing a physical examination and lab tests to assess the patient’s medical state.
THE PRIMARY GOALS OF MANAGEMENT AND RECOVERY ARE:
- Abstinence-detoxification may be required to help reduce the effect of withdrawal
- Relapse prevention and
The recovery of psychological addiction is more challenging and time consuming than the physical aspect of addiction.
Dual diagnosis: treatment of mental illness to chemical dependence is more effective.
Examples of substances of abuse: marijuana, cocaine, house hold cleaners medicines for cold, Alcohol, amphetamine, anabolic steroids, caffeine, cannabis, nicotine, codeine e. t .c
RECENT TREND IN TRAMADOL AND CODEINE ABUSE
It’s no longer news that there’s been a current upward trend in the abuse of tramadol and codeine containing over the counter medications in Nigeria resulting in the reclassification of some of the preparations to Prescription only medicines to reduce indiscriminate access. Continuous awareness is therefore necessary to serve as a reminder to the Public.
ILLICIT DRUG TRAFFICKING/TRADE: is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture, distribution, and sales of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit the trade except under license. Drug trafficking is regarded as a serious offense around the world. Penalty depending on the type of drug and its classification in the country into which it’s being trafficked, the quantity trafficked, where the drugs are sold and the distribution mechanism.
Penalty when caught may include:
Sentencing of lengthy periods
Death penalty (in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia e. t. c)